According to new report, colleges spend around $2.5 billion dollars a year on students who need remedial classes to make up for what they didn’t learn in high school.

Analyzing federal data, the report estimates 43 percent of community college students require remediation, as do 29 percent of students at public four-year universities, with higher numbers in some places. For instance, four in five Oklahoma community college students need remedial coursework, and three in five in the giant California State university system need help in English, math or both.

The cost per student runs to as much as $2,000 per student in community colleges and $2,500 in four-year universities.

So, is the problem that students are not well prepared for college work in their high school classes?

Or that formal post high school academic work of the type students face in college is the not the most appropriate path for them?

Or a combination of the above?