Not much to say about this.
The Dover Area [PA] School Board voted to add “Intelligent Design Theory” to the district’s biology curriculum Monday evening just two weeks after Supt. Richard Nilsen assured former board member Lonnie Langione that wouldn’t happen.
Obviously the six members who voted for this trash don’t understand the concept of "scientific theory" and don’t care if the students in their schools acquire the same ignorance.
Oh, but it gets better.
Eleven members of the community spoke before the vote with only one, Eric Riddle, encouraging the board to include “intelligent design” in the curriculum. Riddle currently homeschools his children.
THEORY OF REALITY
FOR A TRILLION BILLION YEARS MORE
COMPLIMENTS OF FUSING HYDROGEN PARTICLES
ABSRACT: Newton discovered the Laws of the Universe. Einstein discovered that everything is relative dependent upon your location and momentum in the universe. This Theory of Reality discusses new physics of universal features such as why the universe is still expanding and at a faster rate. It also discusses new physics of light, time and time travel, space-time, the Big Bang, and life. Addenda elaborate on constant velocity, tribal inhabitants of our planet, and gravity unification with the strong force that also confirms Newton’s ether.
THE UNIVERSE EXPANDS, GALAXIES DO NOT
The accepted theory is that the universe is expanding and will end up as a pretty grim and lonely place some billions or so years from now. However, the individual galaxies are not expanding. This is due to the gravity within the galaxy exceeding the gravity outside the galaxy. Galaxies contain up to a billion suns or more that doesn’t indicate an empty place for whatever life exists in each galaxy. Suns take billions of years to collapse and great clouds of hydrogen within the galaxies are generating new Suns to take their place. In addition, even when suns burn out they provide sufficient gravity as black holes to hold the galaxies together. Eventually all hydrogen will fuse, all stars will collapse, all black holes will evaporate and we will return to a condition of absolute zero with no gravity. This is a billion trillion or more years in the future, not billions.
No star has moved from its current orbit in the Milky Way Galaxy since the recorded history of the universe. The galaxy is moving through space like a ship at sea, and provides enormous quantities of light and other spectrum and a multitude of particles such as protons all emitted by the stars including our sun. Trillions of years is actually sufficient to specify this a Law of Reality with all the attributes of Newton’s Laws and Einstein’s postulate that physics is the same in all platforms, i.e. galaxies of the universe. Whether or not the universe is infinite or not, we know it is universal from all observations that have been made. We live in an expanding universe provided by static galaxies moving through the sea of space.
AS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDS, THE EXPANSION SPEEDS UP
The Universe’s expansion velocity increases due to the expansion of the Universe. The accepted theory is that the universe’s expansion is speeding up due to antigravity. Nobody has detected gravity let alone antigravity. Gravity is due to atomic momentum generating a gravitational field and gravity’s force intensity has been shown to decrease with the inverse square of the distance between masses of particles.
Once gravity was initiated by the Big Bang, the accelerating particles that were blasted away were restrained by gravity’s force fields generated by the new particles forming new galaxies. With an expanding universe the gravity outside the galaxies would decrease, as the galaxies became farther apart. The inertia of the overall universe would thus grow at increased speed with the decrease in gravity in accordance with Newton’s First Law by decreasing the gravity force causing the restraining unbalance. As the universe expands, the gravitational field of each galaxy when spread over 4 times the area will exert one-fourth the intensity between galaxies. Each galaxy will thus be freed to accelerate depending upon its position in the universe. They will continue to accelerate as the intensity of external gravity declines. However, the individual galaxies are not expanding as noted above.
The initial components of the galaxies were propelled by the Big Bang at or near the speed of light. The most distant (light spectrum) of those components from the center of the Big Bang at the speed of light escaped the universe. Those below the speed of light or at the speed of light (light spectrum) nearer the center of the Big Bang formed galaxies as they were restrained by the new force of gravity. Newton’s First Law was imbalanced, as all components were required to maintain their initial acceleration and were prevented from doing so. The galaxies formed by these components continue to remove the imbalance, and as they enter the universal space in all directions, the space between the individual galaxies increases. The imbalance decreases as their attraction for other galaxies decreases due to the lesser intensity of their attraction for others occupying the increased space. The galaxies are now free to accelerate as limited by the remaining attraction between the galaxies.
DARK MATTER AND ENERGY HAVE LEFT THE UNIVERSE
Missing matter has escaped the universe. There appears to be a problem with the amount of matter that exists in the universe. It is calculated that much more matter should be present then is observed. This has resulted in theories on missing or dark matter or dark energy. I would propose that fusion of the trillions of stars in the universe would emit enough protons and light spectrum over the trillions of years to account for this missing matter. Most of this missing and converted matter has escaped the observable universe by this time. It’s had 12 or so billions of light years to do so and it’s going to continue in accordance with Newton’s First Law.
Space contains galaxy solar systems, and their emissions of spectra and particles. Gravity keeps solar systems in the galaxies, but great quantities of spectra and protons, etc. escape its grasp because of their velocity. Imagine how much matter and energy that is emitted by trillions of solar systems from billions if not trillions of galaxies and one can only conclude it has escaped our observable universe, mostly at or near the speed of light. Although not currently observable, this matter and energy resolves the missing matter problem. One only needs to calculate the quantity of matter and energy that has escaped the observable universe for the past 12 billion light years. The protons and spectrum are leaving the galaxies at a much greater velocity than the galaxy velocity is expanding the observable universe, and cannot be observed by the instrumentation we use today. The background radiation we receive are those protons and spectrum that are emitted in our direction only.
The only energy in space is provided by the spectra emitted by the suns. Should the galaxies reach an expansion rate at the speed of light, the entire universe will become spectra, but this is not expected as the initial velocities of the big bang limit the expansion rate.
ONLY LIGHT TRAVELS AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
Anything that travels at the speed of light is light. There seems to be a prevalent theory that there can be time travel by going faster than the speed of light traveling in a vehicle made from some exotic material. Light or the spectrum that contains light has the top velocity in the universe. Any exotic material and its occupants traveling at the speed of light would have been converted to light to travel at the speed of light. Travel at the speed of light and you are light.
Thus, there can be no time travel as there is no exotic material except light itself, other spectra. Travel at the speed of light and you and your vehicle become infinite. Only light and other spectrum at the speed of light become infinite. Any clock measuring time also becomes infinite at the speed of light. Time is only a measurement unit as explained in the following section.
The mass in light takes part in the fusion process of the sun. At 25 million degrees all matter is fusing including the mass in light that hasn’t been emitted. It provides the electron fusion particle, which is utilized to transmute protons into neutrons and combine with protons to generate deuterium that continues the fusion process and also serves to moderate the fusion to prevent solar big bangs.
The mass in light also provides its dual character of having the property of being both wave and particle and affecting the location of electrons when observed which has inspired the uncertainty principle.
TIME DOESN’T WARP, PARTICLES THAT MEASURE TIME WARP
Time is an empirical measurement unit as are the other units of measurement. Dimensions do not change with particle momentum or when affected by gravity. The particles themselves change in size with momentum or the effect of gravity. Time or inches do not dilate or expand, particles do when accelerated. An inch is still an inch, a second is still a second no matter where one is in the universe or how fast the acceleration of the particle – this is an Einstein postulate that physics is the same no matter where one is in the universe. Time doesn’t warp. The clocks that measure time warp.
The Lorentz transformations can only define particle warp as measured by dimensions, not warped dimensions. Romulus and Remus are constructed of particles and any change to their particle constituents is due to gravity or velocity.
Their ages do not differ when apart, the clocks measuring their ages change. If they were to count out loud and record the time at the same instant, their vocal chords would warp along with their hands and they would find different recorded counts when they were together again. Romulus is at rest on earth if he is not moving even though the earth is moving. Remus is at rest on his space ship but the space ship is moving. But, they are subjected to different gravity and velocities while apart. As long as you are on the planet revolving at a constant velocity, and moving around the sun at a constant velocity, and moving and rotating with the galaxy at a constant velocity, you won’t feel a thing unless you yourself get moving. When at rest, although you are moving with the planet, you are not moving against gravity and you are not on a space ship being accelerated toward the speed of light, both of which will warp your constituent particles.
We are made of the same elementary particles that make up the rest of the universe, which have been constituents of either life or physical forms in the past and will remain so in the future dependent upon evolutionary processes as to the form. Matter is constantly being reconstituted by evolution through physical processes, which include fusion, fission, and chemical means. Aging is reconstitution of the form due to years of use and abuse. In geologic terms, rocks erode to other forms of rock due to wind, water, temperature, movement, whatever, and your body organs will do the same unless their constituents can be replaced in real time. See discussion of Heavy Water below.
THERE IS NO TIME IN SPACE-TIME WARP
Einstein introduced us to a warped universe a century ago. Particles in space, including light, warp with the effect of momentum and gravity. However time is not a particle and does not warp. The clocks that measure time are made of particles that do warp and will show a “relative time” depending upon the momentum and gravity effect on the clock particles. We have a warped space environment with 3 direction dimensions and a time dimension that are the same wherever they are in the universe.
Again, space contains galaxy solar systems, spectra and particles emitted by the galaxy components, all of which can be warped by gravity and momentum. Time is only an empirical unit used to provide data for positioning, velocity, and aging. Atomic clocks are made of particles and can warp like particles in mechanical clocks. All matter warps due to the effect of gravity and velocity.
Space particles and the energy emitted by fusing particles warp, time does not. Everything ages including evolution. New forms are generated by evolution reconstituting the same particles in different forms, but time does not age as it is not a particle only an empirical measurement unit like an inch, meter, yard, etc. Gravity and momentum have no effect on time.
All formulas using time do so because we want to know the effect on matter by moving it throughout the universe and subjecting to the force of gravity.
Measurement units are critical for all scientific and engineering disciplines. We need to know what air pressures in pounds per square inch, and what velocities in miles per hour are limiting, for example, to provide the tools to continue to search the universe. Measurement units are usually named after the great scientists who provided us with both theoretical knowledge and inventions that have contributed to the many miracle products that have and will continue to make our lives more bountiful and support our studies.
UNIVERSAL ABSOLUTE ZERO CREATED THE UNIVERSE’S FUSION
The Big Bang was colossal and created the universe from a universal symmetry at absolute zero. We have at least two options for creation, a universe that always existed and is static, and a universe that contained matter generated by a universal symmetry at absolute zero. If the universe were always here and static, how can the galaxies move away from each other and at an ever-faster velocity?
Hydrogen is the best indication of a fossil. It’s been around for billions of light years and we have created fusion of hydrogen on this planet and the fusion has created other elements, which is the most significant proof of a metallic hydrogen theory. One has to have an egg to generate a universe. We are and live in a hydrogen universe of three directions with a great number of other measurement units to calculate things that are either necessary or of interest to us.
The hydrogen egg at absolute zero could provide the Big Bang source matter as hydrogen particles without charge that would make up the initial protons. The protons would be weightless, have no resistance, friction, or color and would not enable any forces. All these properties are consistent with a particle at absolute zero, which could only result in a spherical universal sea of metallic hydrogen proton particles 12 billion years or so in the past generated by a universal symmetry at absolute zero. This symmetry of the particles became disordered over time and a fission chain reaction resulted and the entire universe of particles collapsed into the prior weightless vacuum resulting in a galactic fusion reaction.
This fusion process continues to this day and the star creation engine is centered in the great clouds of hydrogen protons that were propelled by the explosion in all directions. The initial fission/fusion processes generated the atomic momentum that resulted in the generation of forces that have since been identified as the strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravity. The concepts of exchange and anti-particles should not replace the probability that particle ‘momentum’ is the more likely source of the forces. Moving particles provide all the earth, air, fire, water, and life in the universe and are all the unification of forces that is required. Stop the movement of particles and we return to where we started.
Natural fission and fusion are observed in the universe. Once fission provides release of gigantic energy, the collapse of the symmetry into the resulting vacuum will generate the galactic fusion energy.
An application of particles near absolute zero would include change of state (liquid to gas and vice-versa) perpetual motion engines powered by helium e.g. to replace Nuclear Reactors. Other applications are superconductors and anti-gravity devices. Elements like helium at such low temperature must be contained in insulated chambers to prevent freezing the nearby atmosphere and occupants should there be an accident. Use of automobile engines powered by helium would be undesirable because of the very high rate of accidents.
THE UNIVERSE’S FUSION CREATED LIFE
A huge cloud of fusing hydrogen was hurled out by the Sun about 5 billion years ago. During the Precambrian period, the reduction in temperature caused by this smaller hydrogen cloud could no longer support fusion. The remaining hydrogen on the surface combined with the fusion product oxygen and rained down to form a water blanket on the surface and cooled the surface to form a crust around the heavier fusion product elements below the surface. Left over oxygen and the fusion product nitrogen were left as the atmosphere mixture that could sustain life.
Only at 93,000,000 miles away from the Sun, the optimum size of the fusing cloud, and with the right constituents generated by the fusion could such a process take hold in our solar system. It was this fortunate collection of evolutionary properties that led to the miracle of life. For the next billions of years, the hot interior of the new planet revolted and spewed great magmas over the surface only to be conquered by the water and a great crust brought the planet under sufficient control so more evolution could take place.
The crust cracked in many places and became great plates that float on the liquid magma and continually clash to this day to form volcanoes and mountains. The earth’s crust has evolved into an igneous-sedimentary-metamorphic granitization cycle with gravity and water providing the forces of change. The original life was formed in the waterbed through combination of hydrogen, oxygen and another fusion product carbon and continued evolution took over from there to generate Homo Sapiens ancestors around a million years ago.
There are millions of fossils to show how life evolved over a billion years or so and we are now at the top of the food chain and for the first time in the evolutionary process we have the wherewithal to control evolution. How life ignited should be much easier to show after more study of the creation of the DNA forces from hydrogen protons.
Cloning has already been implemented and hybridizing of flora and fauna has been a reality for many years. However, a more important endeavor would be the study of the prolongation of life. Heavy hydrogen that generates deuterium appears to be a moderator of the fusion process in the sun that keeps it from exploding and should be studied for both aging and possible medical application in a safe concentration that won’t be destructive or rejected by the immune system. It may only work with new born who have not developed their immune system. It may also moderate cell division.
Heavy water is a constituent in very small quantities of the water we drink and there appears to be a connection with life span of those that drink water with the larger concentration of heavy water.
Martin Lesser, EG, CSM 1955 (Martin Lesser 2004) 6/11/2004
Acknowledgments: Newton, Einstein
Internet Physics References:
“Fundamental Forces” (C.R. Nave 2003) Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.
Which includes a myriad of references by physicists and other scientists
“Imagine the Universe” NASA
As of this time, the only planet in the universe where life has been observed is on the planet Earth that is part of the one of the trillions of solar systems. It is expected that there may be others and scientists have made many predictions on the numbers, but to date none have been found. NASA and other nations are currently studying the many planets in our solar system for signs of life or past life.
The size of the observable universe is approximated at 12 billion light years with a light year the time it takes light at 186,000 miles per second to travel in one calendar year of 365+ days. One light year therefore is about 6 trillion miles in distance so the observable universe is approximately 72 billion trillion miles in radius if we were located at the center? Since it is estimated that the expansion rate is 500,000 miles per hour and we are not receiving light from the unobservable part as yet, and because light has left the universe, it may as well be thought as infinite as light. So to find other life in this infinite universe is quite a task. If we could, no one or his or her descendants reading this paper for many million years would ever be able to meet with other life. Space vehicles just don’t travel very fast to reach such distances and it would be an impossibly perilous journey at best and far too expensive to undertake.
Maybe there will be new technology in the next billion years or so to travel to other locations in our Milky Way or a relatively close-by galaxy before our sun burns out or another galaxy runs into us. The Milky Way galaxy is about 100,000 light years in width, which is about 600 thousand trillion miles. We are about 3,000 light years from a boundary, which makes us 97,000 light years from the furthermost boundary. We should look for solar systems with earth like planets that are about 93 million miles from the youngest and closest star. The ideal candidates should meet the criteria of supporting human life and have a benign moon(s).
We first must explore the candidates with robots while we work on developing a space ship that is capable of providing sufficient gravity to prevent travelers from turning to jelly and at the same time protects travelers from dangerous spectrum and heat emitted from suns. An appropriate magnetic field should suffice, except for particles larger than spectra such as meteors and meteorites, which present a very large problem in such a long journey among others such as replacement of crews. At a speed of 25,000 miles per hour, a space ship could travel 219 million miles per year and it would take 27,397 years to travel one light year or 82,191,000 years to get to the nearest edge of our galaxy. It is going to be very difficult to find the fossil remains of the original universe as it’s being burning for at least 12 billion years and evolution may have completely shrouded its beginning.
CONSTANT VELOCITY ADDENDUM
I am sitting on my patio looking out at the sky of our earth space ship, which is moving through space protected only by a few miles of atmosphere and a magnetic field. The earth is revolving around its axis at about 1000 miles per hour, which we use to determine the amount of time it takes to make a day. It revolves around the sun at about 63.000 miles per hour, which we use to determine the amount of time it takes to make a year. The solar system is part of the Milky Way galaxy that is revolving around its black hole(s) at its center every so many millions of years which we use to determine nothing except that its moving. The Milky Way is one of billions of galaxies, which are moving through space away from its big bang center at speeds of up to 500,000 miles per hour, and it’s possible that the whole universe is revolving? I am sitting on a patio completely exposed to all of this and to my surprise I don’t feel or see a thing until I get up to walk around the patio to get some exercise and try to figure this out.
First, everything I see in the solar system is moving at constant velocity. Even though the solar system is revolving with the galaxy, I don’t see or it and if I could I would find it is also moving at constant velocity. The galaxies are accelerating but I can’t see it so it doesn’t make me dizzy even though I don’t know how fast they are accelerating because they are so many trillions of miles away that their gravity is nothing compared to the gravity of the Milky Way galaxy. Secondly the force of gravity and the weight of the atmosphere anchor me to the earth and I do not have the power to fall off my earth space ship. When I accelerate in my automobile or airplane, I can feel it until I reach a constant velocity, but I still am still anchored to the earth space ship. To get off the earth space ship, I must step into an artificial space ship. I blast off and accelerate to a dizzying speed of about 25,000 miles where I can go into orbit at constant velocity around the earth space ship or give it a little more gas to orbit faster or head for the stars and get into all kinds of trouble.
When I go into orbit, I find that I am weightless because the force of gravity of the earth space ship is so low that I have almost no weight. I can swim around in the atmosphere of my artificial space ship because it takes gravity to give me weight. However my artificial space ship must maintain a velocity to prevent the earth space ship’s gravity from removing me from orbit. This will provide me enough weight to fall back to earth and encounter the earth’s atmosphere, which will ignite my artificial space ship and me so I needn’t worry about the impact of returning to my patio. If I continue off into space some other giant space ship’s gravity will bring back my weight for no good purpose – there are no happy endings in space, gravity rules so keep your distance. In summary, one doesn’t feel a thing in space until you accelerate against the force of gravity or the hot or cold wind blows.
The only animals observed in the universe to date are tribal creatures. They band together out of evolutionary instinct for their own specie. Homo Sapiens with the where-with-all to decide their own fate band together primarily for protection as man is the primary predator of the universe and their primary victim is man although they prey on other specie for food and games. No other specie preys on each other like man. Man has all evolutionary instincts of the lower specie and then some caused by their genius to accomplish both good and evil beyond the imagination of all of lower specie and civilized man.
Man’s genius knows no bounds. Whatever is needed to protect their tribes is attempted with varying degrees of success. Even within tribes, segmentation is allowed to protect the tribe as a whole. They have even instituted the greatest protection of all, that of law and order to handle affairs within and between tribes.
To date that is where man stands and our main enemies are man and evolutionary disease. It is imperative that universal law and order prevail in handling affairs within and between tribes that all must recognize at the peril of tribal and man’s existence. Man’s genius for evil always mystifies civilization and only law and order stand between our destruction. However, man does not live by bread alone; therefore deities generated by man tend not only to support good but also both good and evil extremism. Furthermore we must protect our environment which includes all species and flora. Preying on lower species and flora for games and non-food profit is self-destruction.
Again, man has observed no other planet in the universe that sustains life. However, it is estimated that there are many planets in the universe that can do so. Even then, it is an absolute miracle that our planet and its life exist for the universe is about as chaotic as fusion at 25 million Kelvin can beget. The planet needs all the protection it can get from all the tribes until the sun runs out of fuel as estimated to happen in a few billion years.
Even by then, if we have not developed the technology to find another solar system to inhabit, our constituent particles will remain a part of the universe. After they are again subjected to absolute zero, the physics of the particles will start another universal cycle as described in Fusion Created the Universe. Your particles were present at the beginning and there is no ending for them in a universe which recycles every billion trillion years or so.
The force of gravity has been defined as an attractive force with a mass-less exchange particle called a graviton. No graviton has ever been detected. Gravity is the action-reaction stated in Newton’s Third Law caused by movement of particles.
When particles fuse in an isolated system due to gigantic temperatures overcoming their charge repulsion they release not only a tremendous energy but also a great wave force (gravity) as evidenced by measurement of fusion bomb explosions. These gravity waves when encountering an object will result in a reaction to the force in an equal and opposite direction thus providing the attractive force.
No net force is generated within the isolated system because of the internal action-reaction, however gigantic temperatures are generated within the system to generate the fusion. All macro-isolated systems in the universe generate this external gravity force either by fusion action force waves (gravity) or reaction gravity to the fusion force waves. The inverse square law governs the power of these waves. With trillions of solar systems in the universe, it makes for a very chaotic universe. This is evidenced by our own solar system, which is constantly bombarded by meteorites, which are in imbalance due to their velocity imparted by the initial universal big bang and succeeding galactic and solar big bangs.
Objects having internal temperatures below fusion temperature do not generate gravity waves, as fusion is required. Then how do objects such as planets attract and capture in orbit other objects such as moons. The action-reaction waves generated by the solar systems fusion provide the wave force (gravity) required to generate the reaction forces for all objects in the solar system. The galaxy of solar systems is held together by the wave force (gravity) reactions to the fusion of all the billions of solar systems within the galaxy and the restraint of galactic expansion from the big bang is also accommodated. This is mathematically stated in Newton’s Law of Gravity. See spatial kinetic physics for orbital considerations due to velocity.
We now have unification of gravity and the strong force. The strong force is generated by internal gravity generating high temperature fusion that generates external gravity that can be defined as a wave force or even as Newton’s ether. This unification is similar to the electric force generating magnetism and magnetism generating the electric force using rotation. The weak force is radiation of particles. All accomplished by fusion particle momentum which unifies all forces and generates all life.